Trump vs Sun

Tuesday 8th August 2017
Sun, Humans & Climate Impact

The average temperature in the United States has risen rapidly and drastically since 1980. Recent decades have been the warmest of the past 1,500 years, according to a sweeping federal climate change report, that is awaiting approval by the Trump administration.

The draft report by scientists from 13 federal agencies, which has not yet been made public, concludes that Americans are feeling the effects of climate change right now. That directly contradicts claims by President Trump and members of his cabinet who say that the human contribution to climate change is uncertain, and that the ability to predict the effects is limited.

“Evidence for a changing climate abounds, from the top of the atmosphere to the depths of the oceans,” a draft of the report states. A copy of it was reported as being obtained by The New York Times. The authors note that thousands of studies, conducted by tens of thousands of scientists, have documented climate changes on land and in the air. “Many lines of evidence demonstrate that human activities, especially emissions of greenhouse (heat-trapping) gases, are primarily responsible for recently observed climate change,” they wrote.

The report, completed this year is a special science section of the National Climate Assessment, which is congressionally mandated every four years. The National Academy of Sciences has signed off on the draft report, and the authors are awaiting permission from the Trump administration to release it.

A year ago, Forbes reported that the Sun had likely already entered into a new unpredicted long-term phase of its evolution as a hydrogen-burning main sequence star - one characterized by magnetic sputtering, indicative of a more quiescent middle-age according to  the authors of a new paper submitted to The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Using observations of other sunlike stars made by NASA ’s Kepler Space Telescope, the team found that the Sun is currently in a special phase of its magnetic evolution. Interestingly, experts are also saying that solar activity as low as it currently is, has not been seen since the mini-ice age of 1645 and 1715 –  known as the Maunder Minimum, where in the UK the entire Thames froze over.

The Express reports a new model has allowed experts to predict solar activity with more accuracy than ever before and it suggests that magnetic activity will fall by 60 per cent between 2030 and 2040. The model looks at the Sun’s ’11-year heartbeat’ – the period it takes for magnetic activity to fluctuate. This cycle was first discovered some 173 years ago. However, a mathematician has established a more up-to-date model that can forecast what the solar cycles will look like based upon dynamo effects in two layers of the Sun.

Dynamo effects,  a geophysical theory that dictates how e Earth’s outer core the movement conducts materials like liquid iron across the magnetic field to create electric current  –  and this influences fluid motion beneath Earth’s surface, to create two magnetic fields along the axis of the Earth’s rotation.

Valentina Zharkova (right) from Northumbria University applied this theory to the Sun and was able to predict affects of solar cycles with a 97 per cent accuracy. At the recent National Astronomy meeting Ms Zharkova said “We found magnetic wave components appearing in pairs, originating in two different layers in the Sun's interior. 

 

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