Refrigeration for quantum chips

Monday 8th May 2017
The quantum chip refrigerator

How quantum computers differ from the computers that we use is that instead of computing using normal bits, they use quantum bits, or qubits. The bits being crunched in your laptop are either zeros or ones, whereas a qubit can exist simultaneously in both states. This versatility of qubits is a needed for complex computing, but it also makes them sensitive to external perturbations.

Just like ordinary processors, a quantum computer also needs a cooling mechanism. In the future, thousands or even millions of logical qubits may be simultaneously used in computation, and in order to obtain the correct result, every qubit has to be reset at the beginning of the computation. If the qubits are too hot, they cannot be initialized because they are switching between different states too much. This is the problem Mikko Möttönen and his group have developed a solution to.

A refrigerator makes quantum devices more reliable
The nanoscale refrigerator developed by the research group at Aalto University solves a massive challenge: with its help, most electrical quantum devices can be initialized quickly. The devices thus become more powerful and reliable. “I have worked on this gadget for five years and it finally works!” rejoices (left) Kuan Yen tunnelling from the nearby quantum device, and hence the device loses energy and cools down. The cooling can be switched off by adjusting the external voltage to slightly too little energy from an external voltage source than what is needed for direct tunnelling . Therefore, the electron captures the missing energy required for Tan, who works as a postdoctoral researcher in (right) Möttönen’s group.

Tan cooled down a qubit-like superconducting resonator utilizing the tunnelling of single electrons through a two-nanometer-thick insulator. He gave the electrons zero. Then, even the energy available from the quantum device is not enough to push the electron through the insulator.

“Our refrigerator keeps quanta in order,” Mikko Möttönen sums up. Next, the group plans to cool actual quantum bits in addition to resonators. The researchers also wants to lower the minimum temperature achievable with the refrigerator and make the on/off switch super-fast.

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